Придаточные предложения

Relative pronouns

We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

Relative pronouns - Относительные местоимения

Relative pronoun

Use

Example

WHO

subject or object pronoun for people

I told you about the neighbours who live next door.

WHICH

subject or object pronoun for animals and things

Do you see the car which is on the other side of the street?

THAT

subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)

I don’t like the curtains that hang in the kitchen.

WHOSE

possession for people, animals and things

Do you know the girl whose father is a private detective?

WHOM

object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)

Yesterday I ran into the professor whom I met at the conference.

We usually avoid using prepositions before relative pronouns.

Formal English – unusual structure

The reception to which we went after the ceremony was held at a hotel.

Usual structure

The café which / that we usually have lunch in is near the office.

Everyday English

The café we usually have lunch in is near the office.

Object pronouns

In relative clauses, we do not use object pronouns after prepositions.

We went on a holiday with some friends. They are from the Netherlands. → The friends we went on a holiday with are from the Netherlands.

(NOT: The friends we went on a holiday with them are from the Netherlands.)

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun?

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used. We do not normally omit them.

I met a man. He is from Korea.
I met a man who / that is from Korea. (the relative pronoun is the subject, it followed directly by the verb is and there are no other words between them)

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses.

That’s the house. We bought it a year ago.
That’s the house (which / that) we bought a year ago. The relative pronoun is the object, it is followed by the pronoun we and it stands between which / that and the verb bought)

Relative Adverbs

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
This is the shop where I bought my bike.

Relative

adverb

Meaning

Use

Example

WHEN

in / on which

refers to a time expression

the day when we I him

WHERE

in / at which

refers to a place

the place where I met him

WHY

for which

refers to a reason

the reason why I met him

Defining Relative Clauses

Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Imagine, James is in a room with several other people. One man is talking to James and you ask somebody whether he knows this man. Here the relative clause defines which of the people you mean.

Do you know the man who is talking to James?

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped.

The lady (who/whom) we met on holiday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

Imagine, James is in a room with only one man. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this man. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which man you mean.

Do you know the man, who is talking to James?

In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

The letter in a blue envelope, which I received yesterday, is from my mother.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

Mrs. Greasewood, who/whom we met on holiday, is very nice.

 

Упражнения

Elementary 

Упражнения на Defining и Non-Defining Relative Clauses

Pre-intermediate 

Упражнения на Defining и Non-Defining Relative Clauses
Упражнения на придаточные предложения

 

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